May 29th, 2022

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Effectiveness of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Protection from Magnetic Field Exposure During Pregnancy: An Experimental Rat Study
Authors:  Ugurkan Erkayiran, M.D., and Tufan Arslanca, M.D.
  OBJECTIVE: Magnetic fields (MFs) can have several negative effects on the human body. This study aimed to reveal the relationship of adenosine deaminase enzyme (ADA), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and fetal neural degeneration (FND) with the curative effect of omega-3 fatty acids.

STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant Wistar Albino rats (n=30) were separated into 3 groups: Group 1 (sham group), Group 2 (rats exposed to 20 microteslas [μT] for 1 h/day for 10 days), and Group 3 (rats exposed to 20 μT for 4 h/day for 10 days). Blood samples were taken on days 1, 10, and 17 to examine ADA and TSH. Neurodegeneration scores were ana-lyzed with microscopic examination.

RESULTS: FND was determined to be greater in the rats exposed to the long-term MFs as compared to short-term MFs (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in terms of ADA and TSH in the rats that received short- and long-term MF as compared to the sham group (p<0.05). The mean scores were higher in the short- and long-term MF groups than in the sham group (p<0.05). ADA activity was found to be higher and TSH was lower in the short- and long-term MF groups (p<0.05). With the use of omega-3, positive alterations in myelin degeneration were observed in the groups exposed to short- and long-term MF (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: While both ADA and TSH increased in both short- and long-term MF exposure, long-term MFs affected FND more than short-term exposure. Although using omega-3 showed a protective effect on the MF-induced FND, it was only protective against short-term exposure.
Keywords:  adenosine deaminase; antioxidants; brain; demyelinating diseases; electromagnetic fields; environmental exposure; fatty acids, omega-3; fetal neuronal degeneration; magnetic field exposure; myelin sheath; nervous system; omega 3; oxidative stress; pregnancy; radiation effects; thyroid-stimulating hormone
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