August 2nd, 2021

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Clinical Epidemiology and Management of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia in Hungary in the Past 34 Years
Authors:  V. Fülöp, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc., I. Szigetvári, M.D., J. Szepesi, M.D., G. Végh, M.D., M. Singh, M.D., and R. S. Berkowitz, M.D.
  OBJECTIVE: To review our clinical experience in the treatment of patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) over the past 34 years in our national trophoblastic disease center.

STUDY DESIGN: Between January 1, 1977, and December 31, 2010, 331 patients with low-risk GTN and 174 patients with high-risk GTN (altogether 505) were treated. The patients were directed to the national trophoblastic disease center from all parts of Hungary. The patients were between 14 and 54 years of age, with an average age of 28.7 years. Primary chemotherapy was selected based upon the patient’s stage and prognostic score of GTN.

RESULTS: Among 237 low-risk patients, 228 (96.2%) achieved remission as a result of primary methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Out of 94 low-risk patients 90 (95.7%) achieved remission as a result of primary actinomycin-D (Act-D) therapy. MTX, Act-D and cyclophosphamide (MAC) as a primary therapy was used in 118 high-risk cases, and 110 (93.2%) patients achieved complete remission. A total of 32 high-risk patients were treated with the etoposide, high-dose MTX/folinic acid, Act-D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-CO) regimen, and of 26 primary therapies complete remission was achieved in 21 (80.8%) cases. Primary cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (CEB) therapy was successful in 16 of 17 high-risk cases (94.1%). Metastases were found in 47.3% (239/505) of the patients. Hysterectomy was performed in 68 of 505 (13.5%) cases. Chemotherapy, surgical intervention or other supplementary treatments resulted in 100% remission in cases of nonmetastatic and metastatic low-risk disease. Comparison of mean prognostic scores resulted in significant differences between CEB and MAC, CEB and EMA-CO, and MAC and EMA-CO.

CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that MTX/folinic acid or Act-D should be the primary treatment in patients with nonmetastatic or metastatic low-risk GTN. Patients with high-risk metastatic GTN should be treated primarily with combination chemotherapy. Our data support the effectiveness of MAC, EMA-CO and CEB regimens. Results also show that patient care under the direction of experienced clinicians serves to optimize the opportunity for cure and minimize morbidity.
Keywords:  anatomical stages, chemotherapy, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, prognostic score
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