August 2nd, 2021

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Clinical Usefulness of Contrast-Enhanced Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Invasive and Noninvasive Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases: A Preliminary Study
Authors:  M. Emoto, M.D., Ph.D., R. Sadamori, M.D., Ph.D., T. Hachisuga, M.D., Ph.D., T. Kawarabayashi, M.D., Ph.D., and S. Miyamoto, M.D., Ph.D.
  OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of contrast-
enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) in differentiating between invasive and noninvasive gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).

STUDY DESIGN: In 23 patients with findings suggestive of GTD by transvaginal gray-scale ultrasonography, the presence or absence of blood flow within uterine lesions was assessed by contrast-enhanced CDU using Levovist (Schering, Berlin, Germany) microbubble contrast agent. Intratumoral blood flow waveforms were analyzed using resistance indices. Tumor size in each invasive or malignant GTD was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

RESULTS: Intratumoral blood flow was detected in all invasive or malignant GTDs (7/7: 5 invasive moles, 1 choriocarcinoma and 1 placental site trophoblastic tumor), whereas it was not seen in any noninvasive GTD (0/16: 10 complete moles, 5 partial moles and 1 exaggerated placental site) (p <0.0001). A marked increase in uterine vascularity was thus shown in all invasive or malignant GTDs following enhancement. In small invasive moles (<2 cm) in the uterine myometrium, color flow was remarkably increased by contrast-enhanced CDU. Intratumoral blood flow waveforms showed low resistance indices in all invasive and malignant GTDs.

CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced CDU may be useful in differentiating invasive or malignant GTDs from noninvasive GTDs. By enhancing color flow, this minimally invasive approach may be helpful for detecting small invasive GTD lesions within the uterine myometrium.
Keywords:  angiogenesis; gestational trophoblastic disease; hydatidiform mole; Levovist; ultrasonography, Doppler, color
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