April 4th, 2020

A full text version of this article is available.
To access article obtain online access here or login
Combined Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy for the Detection of Female Genital System Anomalies: Results of 3,811 Infertile Women
Authors:  Soha Siam, M.D., and Badeea S. Soliman, M.D.
  OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of Müllerian and gonadal anomalies in a group of infertile women using a combination of diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy.
Study design: This was a retrospective descriptive study in the setting of a university hospital. The records of 3,811 women who underwent laparoscopy and hysteroscopy for infertility were reviewed.

RESULTS: Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) were diagnosed in 287/3,811 (7.5%) women, gonadal anomalies in 40/3,811 (1.04%) women, MDAs and gonadal anomalies in 22/3,811 (0.57%) women, and “undefined anomalies” in 8/3,811 (0.2%) women. Among the 287 women with MDAs 54.9% were diagnosed with a septate uterus, 14.2% with an arcuate uterus, 10.2% with a bicornuate uterus, 5.8% with a unicornuate uterus, 4.7% with tubal anomalies, 3.6% with a hypoplastic uterus, 2.9% with Müllerian agenesis, 1.8% with a septate uterus and a double cervix, 1.1% with uterus didelphys, and 0.7% with a longitudinal vaginal septum. Among the 40 women with gonadal anomalies 70% were diagnosed with hypoplastic ovaries, 25% with streak gonads, and 5% with an accessory ovary. Among the 22 women with combined Müllerian and gonadal anomalies 50% were diagnosed with streak gonads and a hypoplastic uterus, 31.8% with a hypoplastic uterus and hypoplas-tic ovaries, and 18.2% with ovarian and tubal anomalies.

CONCLUSION: Combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are valuable tools for the diagnosis and classification of female genital system anomalies.
Keywords:  female genital system anomalies, female genital tract, gonadal anomalies, hysteroscopy, infertility, laparoscopy, Mullerian anomalies
  Acrobat Reader 7.0 is recommended to properly view and print the article.
Reader can be downloaded from